What is a macular hole?
A macular hole is an opening in the macula, which is the central area of the retina. The gel that is inside the eye (vitreous) can lose its volume over time and shrink. This deteriorated gel can exert traction on the macula. In most cases it separates without causing any negative effects, however, in some cases when this gel is firmly attached to the central region of the retina (macula), this traction can cause small openings in this area. Macular holes usually appear in patients over 57 years of age, but may also occur in patients with large (myopic) eyes or who have suffered an eye trauma.
Macular hole image. Retinography and Retinal Scanner (OCT)
- Blurred central vision.
- Distorted vision (metamorphopsia). Straight lines are perceived as undulated
- Scotomas: Missing lines, blind spots
Blurred central vision
Amsler grid, recommended for the self-assessment of distortion of central and paracentral vision, affected in diseases of the macula
Some cases may close spontaneously, but vitreous-retinal surgery (vitrectomy) is usually the treatment of choice.